Ibn-e-Khaldun is the real Father of Sociology

Historical Introduction of Ibn-e-Khaldun

He was born on May 27, 1332, in Tunis. The great medieval thinker Ibn-e- Khaldun was born into an educated family in Tunis. During the Black Death struck Tunis in 1349, both Khaldun’s parents died. Tunis was a center of learning during this period. Ibn-e-Khaldun memorized the Holy Qur’an as well as mastered Hadith and Maliki jurisprudence.

At the age of 20, Khaldun posted at the Tunis’ court, and later, he becomes the secretary to the Abu anana, the sultan of Morocco in Fez. In 1350 he spent two years of his life in prison for suspicion of participating in a rebellion. After being released, Khaldun goes to Granada (Spain).

He spends his five years of study in North Africa. During this period, his work got fame and led to his teaching. He was given the post of lecturership at Al Azhar Mosque University in Cario.

The real name is Muhammad bin Ibrahim bin Abd-ur-Rehman bin Ibn Kaldon. He is the great Arab Historian and the birth father of sociology and the science of history. Ibn-e-Khaldun is also called the sheik of all social sciences. Ibn-e- Khaldun coined the term of Al-Imran and also introduced the scientific method of study.

Sociology is a broad discipline of social sciences. Consequently, it is a difficult task to define pioneer and professional sociologists. In the following, a little bit tries to shed light on the theories, works, and occupation of sociology’s father.

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Ibn-e-Khaldun’s occupation

  • Politician
  • Writer
  • Historian
  • Philosopher
  • Teacher

Places of residence of Ibn-e-Khaldun

  • Iberia
  • Africa

The quotation attributed to Ibn e Khaldun

“Khaldun who finds a new path is a pathfinder, even if the trail has to be found again by others, and he who walks far ahead of his contemporaries is a leader, even though centuries pass before he is recognized. As such.

Writing

  • Significant work is Al-Muqaddimah Introduction of history
  • He wrote history Muslims north Africa entitled Al-Tarif bi Ibn Khaldun

Ibn khaldoun Muqaddimah

Muqaddimah is an Arabic word that means “Prologue” or “Introduction.”

Ibn Khaldun is well known for his Muqaddimah. Ibn-e-Khaldun’s Prolegomena “The Muqaddimah: An introduction to the history of the Arab and Berbers of North Africa.” It is the first work of Khaldun deals with social sciences. The Muqqadimah was fully appreciated first by the 19th century. European scholarship and western scholars recognize him as a great philosopher of the Muslim world because of this book.

This book is a unique approach masterpiece in the literature on philosophy, history, and sociology. Muqaddimah is the original contribution of Khaldun.

In this context, he describes Al Asbiya, social change, the dynamic of group relationship, and showed how group-feeling.

In Muqaddimah, ibn Khaldoon explained the close relationship between political and social events and history. He said they all work based on a cause-and-effect relationship.

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Theories

1. Theory of Al-Asbiya/social solidarity

The term Asbiya derives from the Arabian word “Asab,” meaning “to unite” or “to bind.” In Sociological terms, its point is social solidarity, social cohesion, and social integration. Thus, Al-Asbiya /solidarity is much essential for economic, intellectual, and political development.

The concept of social solidarity is popularized in Ibn-e-Khaldun’s masterpiece, “The Muqaddimah.” According to Khaldun, man is an animal, but he becomes human because of his solidarity and cooperation. Ibn-e- Khaldun believed that tribes are successful because of their highest Asbiya/solidarity.

Ibn-e-Khaldun’s spirit of sociology is his concept “Asbiya.”

According to Khaldun, Asbiya is “The shared desire of a group and the sense of equality among the group member that keeps the people united and act as an effective force for action.”

Al-Asbiya is the Social relationship, social bond, social cohesion, the progress of social collectiveness. It enables the individuals to identify with their groups, their loyalty to their groups.

According to Khaldun, Asbiya is a power that unites the people. According to this concept, the state-based set on one of the two rules.

  1. Concept of unity or groups/ Asbiya
  2. Religion

These are the two rules which become the reason for the establishment of a state.

2. Theory of rural and urban society

Khaldun used the term for rural and urban society as “Badank” and Harda.” They had a strong Asbiya.

According to Khaldun, human society is different from an animal. Human society is diverse from the animal community based on the following features.

  1. Humans are blessed with wisdom.
  2. Man finds the means of livelihood.
  3. Human beings require the power of the ruling
  4. Human beings cannot live alone

Badank/ rural society

In badank society, the vital force of Asbiya/solidarity. They live in a desert; that’s why they have to struggle hard to survive. However, they are brave and physically healthy. Their standard of life is straightforward. The Badank society is similar to those who live in the valley, village, and rural areas.

Harda society

Harda people are the people who live in cities and urban areas. They do not struggle hard. That’s why not physically strong. They were able to get all the needs of survival quickly. Harda society depends upon the army and police for safety. people of HArda’s society live luxurious life and weekend force of Asbiya.

3. Theory of cyclic social change

Ibn-e-Khaldun point of view is the societies lose solidarity/strong Asbiya because of changes.

Khaldun was of the view society ever changes, and this change follows a clockwise pattern. Thus, this circle was completed and repeated after 120 years.

This change is cyclic social change. It has fixed stages. This cyclic social change takes three phases, and each step has 40 years. Each step has its own economic, religious, demographic, and political characteristics—the cyclic social change based on development and decay.

First stage

It is an initial stage or the evolutionary period of society. At this stage, people have no military forces, potential values and weak in all matters. Therefore, in the first stage, people have solidarity, unity, and muscular strength of Asbiya.

Second stage

The second stage calls the period of material and economic development. Society enriches stronger in social, political, economic, and other such fields. They have a strong government with the military, trade, and economic activities. People transform into luxurious and comfortable. The feeling of prejudice weakens. The second stage is the period of people’s rise materially, but the decline of Asbiya begins.

Third stage

The people of the third stage start to enjoy life with luxurious things, and the decaying and fall begin. They left hard work and loosed the power of solidarity. This period is called the period of end, decline, chaos, and disorder.

At the End

With time, the great Muslim philosopher, thinker, and sociologist ibnkhaldoun died on March 17, 1406. Some references have 1395.

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